Glossary

Chlorination

Adding Chlorine or Chloride salts to the water to kill bacteria. It is somewhat effective and does not remove harmful bacteria such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

Coagulant:

An agent that forms clumps of suspended solids that sink in the water column.

DAF:

See Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) below

Desalination (Desal or DS):

Removing salt from water; best known as process for turning seawater into fresh water.

Direct Pressure Filtration:

A pump draws the water through this part of the systems, which separates the contaminants from the water, leaving the waste behind.

Disinfection:

Treating the water after it has been through the Sionix system or as a pre-treatment method to kill or impair microorganisms.

Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF):

A method of water treatment that injects air bubbles into the water. These air bubbles cling to particulates of waste and float them to the surface. This method of water treatment has recently been implemented in the U.S. as a more effective and advanced way of purifying wastewater.

Effluent:

Any polluted water discharged from a process that uses water. Literally, means "flow out of."

Flocculent:

Chemicals added to the influent that aids in the floatation of contaminants.

Influent:

This water may or may not be polluted depending on the situation.  Literally, means "flows into."

Liquor:

Water having significant changes from the influent water but is not to final product quality. Liquor is not effluent.

Mat:

Floating contaminants from the DAF tank. It is skimmed off, collected, and de-watered.

Micro-Filtration:

Media that the water flows through under gravity, not high pressure, in order to remove contaminants.

Pre-Treatment:

A process that removes some of the contaminants from the source water before it goes into the DAF tank. For example, a high bacteria count in the water will foul the equipment. Adding chemicals to the water impairs the growth or kills the bacteria.

Reverse Osmosis (RO):

A post processor used primarily to extract mineral salts from water.  Organic, Nitrogen, and Sulfur compounds quickly impede the performance of a Reverse Osmosis system.

Sand Filtration:

A method of waste removal that allows particles to be trapped in the pores between the sand grains. This eventually leads to clogging the filter and requires back-flushing, or cleaning the filters. Back flushed water is recycled in the Sionix unit to conserve water.

SCADA:

Control software for the Sionix unit that makes automatic adjustments to account for minuscule chemical changes in the influent or liquor stages. Communications can be wireless and/or hardwired.

Suspended Solids:

Small particles floating in the water. They carry particles of bacteria and contaminants.